Consists:source chamber and linear accelerator
Process:The atoms of Hydrogen are sent to the source chamber where its electrons are stripped off to leave only protons.These protons are sent into the linear accelerator and accelerated to 1/3rd of speed of light with the help of electric field.
In this 157 m booster the protons are divided into 4 packets one for each ring.They are accelerated to 91.6% of speed of light with the help of electric field.The magnets exert maximum force on charged particles at right angles.So here electromagnets are used at right angles to bend protons along the circle.
Consists: Proton Synchrotron
Process:The packets are recombined and 2 packets are circulated for 1.2 s in the 628 m circumference ring.Here, the speed reaches 99.9 % of speed of light.According to Special theory of relativity, the speed of an object cannot be more than or equal to the speed of light since mass increases with increase in speed and in case of speed of light the mass becomes infinite which is not possible.Thus the speed of protons does not further increase and instead mass increases due to the energy provided to 25 GeV.
Consists:Super proton synchrotron
Process:The packet are sent into this ring with 7 km circumference and energy is added so that its energy reaches 460GeV
Consists:Large Hadron Collider or LHC, 27 km in circumference.
Process:Here the packets are sent into 2 rings and travel in opposite direction. After circulating for 30 minutes where energy is added and packets are increased, speed becomes so close to speed of light that they circulate 11000 times in 1 s.The energy gets becomes 7 TeV.Then these packets are allowed to collide and the resultant conditions are recorded in supercomputers located in labs.